• “Colonies, communism and Clara Bow,” Journal of the Historical Society (University of Malaya), 1 (1960-61), 57-59.


  • Guide to Malay Periodicals, 1876-1941.  With details of known holdings in Malaya (Papers on Southeast Asian Subjects, No. 4; Singapore:  Eastern Universities Press, 1961), vii, 46 pp.
  • “Kaum Muda – Kaum Tua: Innovation and reaction in Malay society, 1900-1941,” in K. G. Tregonning (ed.), Papers on Malayan History (Singapore: Journal of Southeast Asian History, 1961), 169-192.


  • “Malay newspapers,” in K. G. Tregonning (ed.), Malaysian Historical Sources (Singapore: 1962), 95-97.


  • “The Malayo-Muslim world of Singapore in the late nineteenth century,” Journal of Asian Studies, XXV (1964), 75-90.


  • Stories of Sir Hugh Clifford (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1966), xviii, 216 pp.  Edited with an Introduction.
  • “The life and times of Haji Othman Abdullah,” Peninjau Sejarah (Kuala Lumpur), I, 2 (1966), 62-68.


  • The Origins of Malay Nationalism (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1967, xx, 297 pp.   Repr. by University of Malaya Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1967; second repr. ed. 1995.)
  • Stories and Sketches by Sir Frank Swettenham (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1967, xviii, 225pp. Edited with an Introduction.)
  • Sejarah Surat-surat Khabar Melayu [History of Malay newspapers] (Monograf Persekutuan Bahasa Melayu Universiti Malaya, No.1; Penang: Sinaran Press, 1967), 41 pp. In Malay.)
  • “Colonial pursuits,” Journal of the Historical Society (University of Malaya), VI, (1967-68), 51-53.


  • Review article: Judith Djamour, The Muslim Matrimonial Court in Singapore (London School of Economics, Monographs in Social Anthropology, No.31), in Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 124 (1968), 286-291.
  • “Asal-usul nasionalisma Melayu” [The origins of Malay nationalism], Majallah Dian (Kota Bharu), 20 (1968), 101-110.
  • “The Persatuan Melayu Selangor: an early Malay political association,” Journal of Southeast Asian History, IX (1968), 117-146.


    • “Malaysian State Council Minutes in New York,” Journal the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, XLII (1969), 213-219.
    • “Social history and its materials in Malaysia,” Peninjau Sejarah (Kuala Lumpur), III, 1 (1969), 13-20.


  • “Southeast Asia in the nineteenth century,” in P. M. Holt et al (eds.), The Cambridge History of Islam (Cambridge: The University Press, 1970), Vol.II, 155-181.
  • “Indonesian and Malay students in Cairo in the 1920s,” Indonesia (Ithaca), 9 (April 1970), 73-88.


  • In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History (with D. J. Steinberg et al, New York: Praeger, 197l, xii, 522pp. Repr. Honolulu, Ha.: University of Hawaii Press, & Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1985.)


  • Autobiography and Biography in Malay Historical Studies (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Occasional Paper No.13, 1972), 21 pp.
  • Bibliography of Malay and Arabic Periodicals published in the Straits Settlements and Peninsular Malay States, 1876-1941 (London: Oxford University Press, for School of Oriental & African Studies, 1972; London Oriental Bibliographies, Vol. 3, vii, 74 pp.  Annotated with historical introduction and union list of holdings in Malaysia and the United Kingdom.)
  • “Dato’ Alwi Jantan and the Arkib Negara Malaysia: an appreciation,” CORMOSEA Newsletter, V, 1 (Oct.1972), 1-3.  Repr. in Southeast Asian Archives, 5 (July 1972), 1-2.


  • Kelantan: Religion, Society and Politics in a Malay State (Kuala Lumpur:  Oxford University Press, 1973), xvii, 371pp.  Edited, with a contribution, three translations from the Malay, Introduction, and bibliography of Kelantan.)
  • “The origins and early years of the Majlis Ugama,” in ibid., 101-152.
  • “Islam as an agent of modernization: an episode in Kelantan history”, in H.-D. Evers (ed.), Modernization in Southeast Asia (Singapore: Oxford University Press, for Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1973), 170-174.
  • Contributions to Dusun Zbavitel (ed.), The Dictionary of Oriental Literatures, Vol.II, South and Southeast Asia (London: Allen & Unwin; New York: Basic Books, for the Oriental Institute, Prague, 1973. Eight articles on Malay literature.)


  • “The mystery of the first Malay novel (and who was Rokambul?)”, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 130 (1974), 450-464.
  • “Towards a press in line with Malaysian sentiments and interests,” Malaysian Business Review (October 1974), 51-52.


  • Nasionalisma Melayu (Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1975), xx, 364pp.  Malay translation by Ahmad Boestama of The Origins of Malay Nationalism.
  • “Islamization, communitas, symbols, and institutional structures: a summary,”  and “Islamic institutions in Southeast Asia: work in progress”, in Dietmar Rothermund (ed.), Islam in Southern Asia. A Survey of Current Research (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, for Beitraege zur Suedasienforschung, Suedasien-Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Band 16, 1975), 1-4, 10-11 and passim.
  • “The conduct of the hajj from Malaya, and the first Malay Pilgrimage Officer,” in Amin Sweeney (ed.), Sari Terbitan Tak Berkala [Occasional papers], No.1 (Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Malay Language and Literature, National University, 1975), 81-112.
  • “Report on Yogyakarta Asian History Conference,” CORMOSEA Newsletter, VIII, 2 (May, 1975), 10-11.


  • “The institutionalization of Islam in the Malay Peninsula: some problems for the historian,” in Sartono Kartodirdjo (ed.), Profiles of Malay Culture:  Historiography, Religion and Politics (Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture, 1976), 66-72.


  • The Wandering Thoughts of a Dying Man. The Autobiography of Haji Abdul Majid bin Zainuddin  (Kuala Lumpur:  Oxford University Press, 1978, xvi, 169pp.  Edited and annotated, with an Introduction.)
  • “Leavetakings: the separation stage of the pilgrimage to Mecca,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, New Delhi, 1978.


  • Carving the Path to the Summit, by Ahmad Boestamam (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1979) [Southeast Asia Translation Series, Vol.2], xxxiii, 149pp.  Translated from the Malay with an Introduction and notes.
  • Southeast Asian Research Tools. Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei (Honolulu:  University of Hawaii, Asian Studies Program, Southeast Asian Paper No.16, Part IV, 1979), 61 pp.  With the assistance of Margaret Koch.)


  • “Asia Tenggara di Muzium Sejarah Semula Jadi Amerika” [Southeast Asia in the American Museum of Natural History], Dewan Budaya (Kuala Lumpur), III, 9 (1980), 41-43.  In Malay.
  • Mengenali Sejarah Asia Tenggara Moden (Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1980), xiv, 675 pp.  Translation into Malay of In Search of Southeast Asia.


    • “Sanitation and security: the imperial powers and the nineteenth century hajj,” Arabian Studies (Cambridge), VI (1982), 143-16.
    • “English-language fiction relating to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei: a check-list”, Journal of  the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, LV,1 (1982), 62-77.
    • Fifteen biographical articles associated with Malaysia, Encyclopedia Brittanica (Micropedia).


    • “Whence cometh the Law? Dog saliva in Kelantan, 1937,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, XXV (1983), 323-38.  (Repr. in Katherine Ewing (ed.), Sharia, Ambiguity and Change: Moral Principles in Tension in Asian Islam. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press, 1988, 25-40.)
    • “The Mecca pilgrimage: Its meaning for Southeast Asian Islam,” in K. Friedmann & R. Israeli (eds), Islam in Asia (Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1983), Vol. 2, 238.


  • “Malaysia, Sdn. Bhd.,”[Malaysia Ltd.], in Khoo Kay-kim et al (eds), Historia: Essays Marking the 25th Anniversary of the History Department, University of Malaya (Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Historical Society, 1984), 236-240.
  • Kerjasama dan Koperasi di Semenanjung, 1910-1941: Petikan dari Bahan-bahan Terbit Zaman [Co-operation and the co-operative movement in Malaya 1910-1941: extracts from contemporary materials] (Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1984), xv, 285 pp.  (Selected and edited, with an Introduction.  In Malay.)


  • “Islam obscured? Reflections on studies of Islam and society in Southeast Asia,” Archipel (Paris), 29 (1985), 7-34.
  • “Pilgrimage and the history of religions: theoretical approaches to the hajj,” in Richard C. Martin (ed.), Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies (Tucson, Ariz.:  University of Arizona, 1985), 78-86.


    • Islam and the Political Economy of Meaning: Comparative Studies of Muslim Discourse (London: Croom Helm & Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), vii, 300pp.  Edited with an Introduction and contribution.
    • “Islamic movements: one or many?”, in ibid., 30-51.
    • In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History, with D. J. Steinberg et al, Honolulu, Ha.: University of Hawaii Press, 2nd ed., revised and enlarged, 1987), ix, 590 pp.


    • “Leavetakings: the separation stage of the Meccan pilgrimage,” Muslim & Arab Perspectives (New Delhi), I:1 (October 1993/Rabic II-Jumada I ,1414), 20-28.


  • The Origins of Malay Nationalism (2nd ed., with a new Introduction, and with an Afterword by Shaharil Talib). (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford  University Press, 1994), xxxviii, 303 pp., illus.


  • “An argument about how to argue,” in M.K. Masud, B. Messick & D.S. Powers (eds), Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and their Fatwas (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1996), 223-229, 359-360.
  • “Patterns of Islamisation in Malaysia, 1890s-1990s: Exemplars, institutions and vectors,” Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford), IX:2 (July, 1998), 210-228.
  • “Afterword: The comparative study of Muslim societies,” in Leif Manger (ed.), Muslim Diversity: Local Islam in Global Contexts (London: Curzon Press, 1999), 244-256.
  • “Pondoks, madrasahs and the production of ‘ulama’ in Malaysia, 19th-20th Centuries,” Studia Islamika (Jakarta), VOL (1988), pp.
  • “Islam in Indonesia as a knowledge industry,” Kultur: The Indonesian Journal for Muslim Cultures, 1:2 (2001), 1-7.  Rev. version in Fu’ad Jabali & Jamhari (eds), Islam in Indonesia : Islamic Studies and Social Transformation (Montreal  & Jakarta:  Indonesia-Canada Islamic Higher Education Project (2002), 47-52.


  • “Murder as an aid to social history: the Arab community in Singapore in the early twentieth century,” in Huub de Jonge & Nico Kaptein (eds.), Transcending Borders: Arabs, Politics, Trade and Islam in Southeast Asia, (Leiden: KITLV Press), 92-108.
  • “Sociological interpretation of religious ritual: the case of the hajj,” in Virginia Hooker & Noraini Othman (eds.), Malaysia: Islam, Society and Politics.  Essays in honour of Clive S. Kessler (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies), 37-54.


  • “Pondoks, madrasahs and the production of ‘ulama in Malaysia,” Studia Islamika, 11:1 (2004), 1-21.


  • The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History (Honolulu, HA:  University of Hawaii Press, 2005, xxiii, 541 pp., illus.  Co-author with N.G. Owen et al.)


  • “Islam movements.  One or Many?”  In Andrew Rippin (ed), Defining Islam:  A Reader (London: Equinox, 2007).
  • “Onomastics and taxonomies of belonging in the Malay Muslim world,” Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford) ,18, 386-405.


  • “The Ins and Outs of Hadrami Journalism: Assimilation nor identity Maintenance,” in Ahmed Abushouk (ed.), The Hadrami Diaspora in Southeast Asia: Identity Maintenance or Assimilation? (Leiden: Brill, 2008).


  • Studies on Islam and Society in Southeast Asia, (Singapore: NUS Press, 2009), xvii, 354 pp.


  • “Customary Law, Islamic Law, and Colonial Authority: Three contrasting case studies and their aftermath,” Islamic Studies (Islamabad) 49:4, 455-462.


  • “Public Art, Nationalism and National Unification in Malaya/Malaysia,” JMBRAS VOL. 85 Part 1 (2012), 99-100.
  • “On Going into the Field,” JMBRAS VOL. 85, Part 2 (2012), 103-109.
  • “Nasehat: Distance and Authority in a Malay Sultanate,” JMBRAS, VOL. 85, Part 2 (2012), 99-101.

Unpublished Papers:

  • “The comparative study of fatawa, and their relevance for social history” (1997-1998)
  • “Non-Muslim new religious movements in a Muslim environment: the case of Malaysia” (1998)
  • “Islam and Malay Identity: Historical Perspectives” (2011)